12TH NIGHT PDF
night, when thou spokest of Pigrogromitus, of the. Vapians passing the equinoctial of Queubus: 'twas very good, i' faith. I sent thee sixpence for thy leman : hadst. Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the public and we . Free PDF, epub, Kindle ebook. Twelfth Night; or, What You Will is a comedy, believed to have been written around –02 as a Twelfth Night's entertainment .
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Twelfth Night—an allusion to the night of festivity preceding the Christian celebration of the Epiphany—combines love, confusion, mistaken identities, and joyful. Shakespeare Theatre Company's production of. Twelfth Night by William Shakespeare. This season, the Shakespeare Theatre. Company presents seven plays. MARIA. For God's sake, Sir Toby, you've got to come home earlier at night. My lady Olivia, your niece, disapproves of your late-night partying. SIR TOBY BELCH .
Readers who want to know more about Shakespeare and his plays can follow the paths these distinguished scholars have tread by visiting the Folger either in-person or online, where a range of physical and digital resources exists to supplement the material in these texts.
I commend to you these words, and hope that they inspire. What is the difference? Many ordinary readers assume that there is a single text for the plays: In some cases, the plays have come down to us in multiple published versions, represented by various Quartos Qq and by the great collection put together by his colleagues in , called the First Folio F. Editors choose which version to use as their base text, and then amend that text with words, lines or speech prefixes from the other versions that, in their judgment, make for a better or more accurate text.
See The Tempest , 1. All Shakespeare editors at the time took the speech away from her and gave it to her father, Prospero. The reader of the Folger Shakespeare knows where the text has been altered because editorial interventions are signaled by square brackets for example, from Othello: At any point in the text, you can hover your cursor over a bracket for more information.
Twelfth Night —an allusion to the night of festivity preceding the Christian celebration of the Epiphany—combines love, confusion, mistaken identities, and joyful discovery. After the twins Sebastian and Viola survive a shipwreck, neither knows that the other is alive.
Viola, in the meantime, has fallen in love with Orsino. Malvolio is tricked into making a fool of himself, and he is locked in a dungeon as a lunatic. In the meantime, Sebastian has been rescued by a sea captain, Antonio. When Viola, as Cesario, is challenged to a duel, Antonio mistakes her for Sebastian, comes to her aid, and is arrested. The Everett Collection Intro. Generally speaking, comedy is opposed to tragedy insofar as the latter plays end in death while the former end in marriage.
The difference between comedy and tragedy is largely a function of how the plays end; one sleight of the authorial pen, and Romeo and Juliet becomes a comedy and Twelfth Night a tragedy. Shakespeare, throughout his career, manipulated and complicated this convention. For example, Antony and Cleopatra seem more united in death than they ever did in life.
The play adheres to comic conventions. Three couples are paired off by the end of the play, and a brother and sister are 19 reunited — yet the world that the play presents is, in the final analysis, more the point of the play than whether or not the ending is happy.
Generally speaking, Shakespearean comedy is also distinguished from tragedy by several other factors. While tragedies often take their name from their central characters, none of the comedies do. While all of these distinguishing factors may be seen in Twelfth Night, we must remember that each play whatever its generic classification handles these themes differently.
In Twelfth Night, we are still invited to laugh, but more typically the laughter is with the characters Intro. We are not afforded any omniscient, Puck-like perspective from which to gaze on the follies brought on by love in Twelfth Night.
This is not to say that Twelfth Night is an especially dark play, but that it contains a harmonious balance between comic and tragic elements. Even though all these threats come to nought, they serve as a reminder of how eros love , in Shakespeare, can so quickly slide over into thanatos death.
In fact, many of the characters speak of love in terms of death. In Twelfth Night, love is seen as similar to death, The comic character, Malvolio, from a Royal Shakespeare Company because both pose a threat, production of Twelfth Night. The very language that one uses of the play, Olivia is mourning a dead brother. Sebasto communicate with another may end up meaning tian and Viola, fraternal twins, have just survived a more, or at least differently, than what one intended.
Yet in both of these cases, The characters in the play that cling to a singuthe severing by death of a fraternal bond, seems to lar sense of self that does not allow for change are force these characters to ready themselves for a more often the ones for whom change happens most viomature adult love.
Malvolio is the most notable example of this, Later in the play, when the plot entanglements heat up, we learn of other near-brushes with death. Pranks orchestrated by Sir Toby and Sir Andrew lead them perilously close to being killed by Sebastian. Most significantly, Orsino threatens to kill but Orsino, too, although he claims to be open to love, is, beneath all his high rhetoric, deeply afraid of any mutual love relationship.
By Intro. Perhaps because, being shipwrecked on a strange land and having lost her brother though not her money! What may be a virtue in other realms of experience becomes a debilitating stubbornness when it comes to erotic love. Fate, show thy force; ourselves we do not owe. What is decreed must be — and this be so! Shakespeare, in the person of Olivia here, gets to the heart of the relationship between self and love.
When we fall in love, we almost necessarily lose our self-composure, cease to be able to see our actions with our own eyes or realize, perhaps for the first time, that we could never see our actions in the first place. The Everett Collection lesson about the most noble, if not necessarily rewarding, attitude to take toward the risk that love entails: Their lapses and mini-tragedies occur when they try to control a situation that, by definition, must remain beyond their control.
For if we do not owe ourselves, then somebody else does, and every relationship with others actually creates our self, our sense of identity, much more than any pre-existing sense of essence does. The heroine of this play, Viola, although extremely passive when it comes to expressing and acting directly on her own desire for Orsino, is Intro.
We do not have control over who loves us, and we do not have control over whom we love. Identity will always be fragmentary and incomplete until one is able to love, regardless of whether one is loved in return.
Yet if that love is frustrated and in Shakespearean comedy, it almost always is at first, as frustration is precisely what moves the plot , it may sometimes turn into hate. Even Malvolio, in his pathetic attempt to please Olivia, shares more of the wisdom that Olivia expresses in the above quote than Orsino does.
Duke I know thee well. How dost thou, my good fellow? Clown Truly, sir, the better for my foes and the worse for my friends. Duke Just the contrary, the better for thy friends. Clown No, sir, the worse. Duke How can that be? Clown Marry, sir, they praise me and make an ass of me; now my foes tell me plainly I am an ass: Duke Why, this is excellent.
The fool, here as elsewhere, is like a zen-master, using absurdity to point out the absurdity of common sense.
He simply cannot see how he may profit by his enemies, by those who thwart his desires. Identity and disguise One of the central motifs of this play is identity and mistaken identity. Identity like so many words in this play has a double sense.
On the one hand, identity differentiates one thing from another by noting the individuality of each. On the other hand, identity also implies likeness or resemblance. When we Intro. And this tension between likeness and difference generates much of the action in the comic and romantic plots. Both plots depend on Viola and Sebastian being identical in appearance, yet two different people.
His ability to reveal the unstable nature of identity itself, however, is profoundly disturbing. What you will in this play is the basis for who you are. In Illyria, characters like actors take on fictive roles, and the line between being someone and playing someone is as tenuous as the line between reality and illusion.
Orsino plays the role of an unrequited lover and performs his suffering in scene after scene. Olivia plays the role of a woman grieving; her somber clothes and veil are her costume.
But in short order, Maria scripts his performance with a counterfeit love letter, supplying him with a larger audience Toby, Andrew, and Fabian and a guide to costuming cross-gartered yellow stockings. Yet all of these characters are unconscious of the fact that they are playing roles at all.
This knowledge sets them apart; they know just how changeable identity really is. Viola is aware that life in Illyria is like a play in which characters choose roles and enact their identities, but she is also aware of the wickedness of disguise hers has deceived Olivia and its limitations it prevents her from being loved by Orsino.
Feste, the Fool, is no less aware of the deceptive nature of appearance when it comes to identity. His role as Fool provides the other characters with a mirror in which they see themselves without illusion, an inverted fun house mirror, correcting instead of creating distortions. Similarly, Shakespeare has created a play that acts as a mirror, showing his audience that identity itself is a convenient lie, its underlying instability the greatest truth. Shakespeare undermines the notion of identity as a stable, immutable form at every level.
The similarity between the names of Olivia, Malvolio, and Viola — spoken aloud, their resemblance is palpable — is no accident; their difference is almost indistinguishable. They not only sound alike, they are anagrams of each other. Viola, as Cesario, is just one example of identity confusion prevalent in Twelfth Night. Viola embodies this confusion when she assumes the identity of a boy, Cesario. In a patriarchal culture, sexual difference is held to be an immutable law; traditional gender role behavior was based on a natural biological fact rather than social convention.
When Cesario and Sir Andrew face each other in a duel, it is revealed that both are dissembling the role of being a man. Music in Twelfth Night The craze for music in Elizabethan England reached its zenith at the close of the sixteenth century. Many popular folk songs and ballads were collected and published in songbooks around the time that Twelfth Night was written.
Some of these songs found their way into this play in the catches and fragments of songs that Toby, Andrew, and Feste sing. The music serves to create a festive carnival atmosphere in Twelfth Night, while the lyrics act as an additional level of commentary on the many themes within the play. This play, especially, begins with a world that has lost all sense of proportion — it is out of tune with itself.
Twelfth Night modulates between lyricism and riotous disorder. Language in Twelfth Night The importance and power of the English language had grown enormously by the sixteenth century. As a result, there was extraordinary interest in language, theories about language, and the uses of rhetoric. One of the main concerns at the time was whether or not words could be trusted to tell the truth.
Was rhetoric the art of persuasion to be used to tell the truth, or was it rather a technique by which a false argument could be made to appear true? In this play, Feste calls our attention to the dissembling nature of words. He shows how easily the meaning of a sentence can be turned inside out. Problems arise whenever one word has two or more distinct meanings. In fact, much of the humor in this play is based on the double sense of words and the confusion it engenders.
Shakespeare creates his characters, in part, through his choice of language. Each character has a distinctive style of diction, based on their vocabulary and syntax. Sir Toby has the slurred speech of a drunk; he mispronounces old words and creates new words in the process. For example, when Orsino muses about the nature of love, he uses extended metaphors and high poetic language; when he speaks to his officers, he gives straightforward commands.
When characters have an immediate need to communicate something, or when they are speaking from the heart, they tend to speak in simple plain language. When they want to dissemble a fact, their language becomes obscure or full of puns. This period was one of great celebration, as the Christian ritual of Epiphany combined with the older Roman Saturnalia, a festival where presents were exchanged, and all people were freed from their customary restraints.
Barber has noted, partakes of this carnival atmosphere, creating a world of indulgence and excess, music and temporary inversions of the traditional social hierarchy. Although it is titled Twelfth Night, the action within the play does not take place during Twelfth Night, and the play has no references to the time of year or the holiday season.
For this reason, the subtitle of the play, or What You Will, is perhaps the better title. The play seems to have been written at a leisurely pace so that it might be produced on the stage with a minimum of alteration.
After passing through eight Italian editions, this work was Intro.
Olivia Your lord does know my mind. I cannot love him; Yet I suppose him virtuous, know him noble A gracious person: That strain again! Enough; no more.
O spirit of love! The alliteration of the sibilant-sounds in lines 2 and 3 is noteworthy; the assonance play on vowel-sounds in lines 1—15 is also remarkable. The effect is heavy and sensual. The word hart or perhaps heart is understood to follow, to make clear the transition from hunting deer to Olivia. This was his punishment for having accidentally viewed Diana and her nymphs while they were bathing.
Duke What, Curio? Curio The hart. Duke Why, so I do, the noblest that I have. O, when mine eyes did see Olivia first, Methought she purged the air of pestilence! Valentine So please my lord, I might not be admitted; But from her handmaid do return this answer: Away before me to sweet beds of flowers; Love-thoughts lie rich when canopied with bowers. The liver vied with the heart as the seat of the bodily passions in the Elizabethan physiology; the brain was the seat of reason, which was to control the exercise of both the affections and the passions.
His character is based on the archetype of the Petrarchan courtly lover; he is an aesthete, inclined towards moodiness and brooding rather than masterful selfassertion — hence his reclining posture.
Surrounded by musicians rather than soldiers, the Duke is introduced by delicate courtly music in contradistinction to the caterwauling of the revelers in scenes to come. His appreciation of music in the first few lines smacks of high romanticism and hyperbole; if his appreciation were sincere, would he so quickly sicken of it? There are elements of profundity in the speech, also, as Orsino is an adept thinker when it comes to the mechanics of desire.
This dismissal acts as a material echo of his discourse on the surfeiting, or excess, of appetite. Shakespeare often presents an idea and follows it up with its dramatic proof.
Curio recognizes his mood, and attempts to distract him by mentioning hunting. He reports that Olivia will mourn the death of her brother for seven years and live cloistered like a nun. We can assume, at least in part, this is the tenor of her message to Orsino. Similar to Orsino, Olivia seems to have a penchant for excessive shows of emotion. Undeterred by this news, Orsino imagines that a woman capable of such devotion to a brother will, once she has fallen in love with Orsino, give him the finest kind of love.
Act I, Scene 1 33 From this scene we gather Orsino is a wealthy gentleman pining away for the love of Olivia. His speeches are beautiful, but such persuasive rhetoric may belie the sincerity of his feelings. His understanding that satisfaction is the death of desire suggests he has experienced enough love conquests in his day to be jaded and consequently somewhat cynical. But now he has found his match in Olivia.
But is she worthy of him simply because she has refused him? Orsino must be aware that desire dies the moment it is satisfied; he expresses this knowledge in clear and concise terms in his discourse about music. What better way to enjoy the fever of desire without end, then by choosing Olivia, the one woman he cannot have.
Viola desires to serve Olivia, but as it is not possible, she decides to serve Orsino instead. The captain promises to present her to the Duke disguised as a boy. Captain This is Illyria, lady.
Viola And what should I do in Illyria? My brother he is in Elysium. What think you, sailors? In Greek Mythology, where the blessed go after death.
Viola Oh, my poor brother! Mine own escape unfoldeth to my hope, Where to thy speech serves for authority, The like of him. Viola What is his name? Captain Orsino. Arion was the poet-musician of the Greek island of Lesbos; about to be put to death by pirates, he asked for a last chance to play his lyre, then leaped overboard and was carried ashore by a dolphin that had been enchanted by the music.
My escape makes me believe my brother might have escaped, and your speech encourages that hope. Captain A noble Duke, in nature as in name. I have heard my father name him. He was a bachelor then. Captain A virtuous maid, the daughter of a count That died some twelvenmonths since; then leaving her In the protection of his son, her brother, Who shortly also died: It may be worth thy pains; for I can sing And speak to him in many sorts of music, That will allow me very worth his service.
What else may hap to time I will commit; Only shape thou thy silence to my wit. When my tongue blabs, then let mine eyes not see. Viola I thank thee; lead me on. Nature often encloses things nasty or evil in a beautiful exterior. On stage, this scene is often played before the curtain to speed up the production. Originally, the play was performed on a bare stage — no traverses areas formed by using a partition or curtain , balconies or inner rooms — enabling the scenes to change constantly from place to place without breaking up the flow of action.
Believing they are the only survivors, Viola grieves for her brother, who was also aboard the ship and, she imagines, has drowned with the rest of the crew. Although we have yet to meet Olivia, we know that she has also recently lost a brother. Even in her grief, she reveals an uncommon generosity of spirit. Though she has just been set on a foreign shore with no other possessions than her clothes and the small sum of gold in her purse, Viola rewards the Captain without a second thought.
Although Viola is new to Illyria, the Captain knows the country well and tells her that Duke Orsino rules these lands. Viola has heard of the Duke from her father and wonders whether he is still a bachelor. The Captain provides some information, suggesting that Orsino is still a bachelor, though he has heard gossip that Orsino is in love with the Countess Olivia. According to the Captain, in her grief, she has sworn to see no men. Viola decides that she wants to serve Olivia.
As they are both grieving the loss of a brother, her service would provide her with an opportunity to share her grief with someone who would really understand. Perhaps she believes serving someone else may prove an effective means to avoid morbid self-pity.
Rather than cloister herself like Olivia, putting her own grief at the center of her existence, she chooses to abnegate her self in service of another.
The Captain, however, informs her that Olivia will admit no kind of suit that is, she will not grant any public audiences, to wooers or anyone else during her mourning period. Viola quickly adopts a new strategy. She will serve the Duke disguised as a boy. Here, Viola exhibits her immense improvisational talents, surprising the Captain with her determination, resourcefulness, and ingenuity.
But first, with subtle irony, she questions whether she can trust his outward appearance of goodness, immediately following up her rhetorical question about the truth of appearances by creating a deceptive ActI. The slippery nature of identity in this play is first hinted at here; Shakespeare subtly calls our attention to this fact by warning us not to trust appearances. Viola, as the heroine of this play, embodies all that is most virtuous in Shakespeare: Compare her relationship to music to that of Orsino.
Viola uses music to give pleasure, while Orsino is a consumer of music, someone who gluts himself and then quickly sickens of it. His taste in Act I, Scene 2 37 music is significantly more narrow than hers.
Orsino fixates on one or two songs; Viola is open and receptive to new music and things at all times. Although Orsino may believe that music is the food of love, we might do better to think of music as a surrogate for love. From this standpoint, the manner in which a character experiences music hints at the way they experience love. Maria proves Sir Andrew to be a fool. Your cousin, my lady, takes great exceptions to your ill hours. Maria Ay, but you must confine yourself within the modest limits of order.
Sir Toby Confine! These clothes are good enough to drink in; and so be these boots too.
An they be not, let them hang themselves in their own straps. Maria That quaffing and drinking will undo you. I heard my lady talk of it yesterday; and of a foolish knight that you brought in one night here to be her wooer. Maria Ay, he. Sir Toby Why, he has three thousand ducats a year. Confine myself: Spanish coin. Italian gamba, leg a stringed instrument like a violincello, held between the knees and scraped with a bow.
Act I, Scene 3 Sir Toby cannot say subtractors after all the drink he has taken. Castiliano vulgo: Andrew supplied Toby with money. A nautical term, when one ship comes alongside of another.
He mistakenly believes Accost is her name.
Twelfth Night: Act 5, Scene 1
Who are they? Sir Toby With drinking healths to my niece.
What, wench! Castiliano vulgo! Sir Toby Sweet Sir Andrew! Sir Andrew Bless you, fair shrew. Maria And you too, sir. Sir Toby Accost, Sir Andrew, accost. Maria My name is Mary, sir. Sir Andrew By my troth, I would not undertake her in this company. Is that the meaning of accost? Maria Fare you well gentlemen. Sir Andrew An you part so, mistress, I would I might never draw sword again. Fair lady, do you think you have fools in hand? Maria Now, sir, thought is free.
I pray you, bring your hand to the butter-bar and let it drink. Sir Andrew Wherefore, sweetheart? Maria A dry jest, sir. Sir Andrew Are you full of them? When did I see thee so put down? Sir Andrew Never in your life, I think, unless you see canary put me down. Methinks sometimes I have no more wit than a Christian or an ordinary man has; but I am a great eater of beef, and I believe that does harm to my wit. I would I had bestowed that time in the tongues that I have in fencing, dancing, and bear-baiting.
O, had I but followed the arts! Sir Andrew was probably bald under the large wig he affected. A caper is also an ingredient used in sauce to spice mutton. Sir Andrew Why, would that have mended my hair? Sir Toby Past question, for thou seest it will not curl by nature. The count himself here hard by woos her. Sir Andrew As any man in Illyria, whatsoever he be, under the degree of my betters; and yet I will not compare with an old man.
Sir Andrew Faith, I can cut a caper. Sir Toby Wherefore are these things hid? My very walk should be a jig. What dost thou mean? Is it a world to hide virtues in? I jig: Shall we set about some revels? Sir Toby What shall we do else? Sir Andrew Taurus! Andrew confuses Taurus with Leo, as Toby points out. Sir Toby No, sir; it is legs and thighs. Let me see thee caper. W Although Olivia is in mourning, the rest of her household, with one notable exception Malvolio , is in a more festive mood, drinking, singing, and carousing.
Olivia quietly disapproves, and the duty of restoring order falls to her puritanical steward, Malvolio, whom we meet later in this act. Chances are that Maria has her own reasons for keeping Toby around. He is a gentleman, and if Maria were to marry him, she would move a step up the social ladder.
Yet there are indications that Maria, too, would prefer a less drunk Sir Toby. She may find his drinking amusing at times, but as a prospective wife, how could she not find his excessive drinking a concern for the future?
For as she warns him, quaffing and drinking will undo him. Sir Andrew is a ridiculous, cowardly knight with a shallow wit and deep pockets. He has an income of 3, ducats a year. Similar to Slender, a foppish moron in The Merry Wives of Windsor, and anticipating the gull Roderigo in Othello, Sir Andrew is an ineffectual suitor of Olivia who trusts his courtship to a middleman Toby who abuses that trust.
Sir Andrew is tall and thin, and he is often portrayed wearing a yellow wig of straw-like hair — as Sir Toby notes, it will not curl and hangs like flax on a distaff. Sir Toby also has a potential for cruelty that Falstaff does not possess.
The over-the-top greetings between Toby and Andrew set the tone of their comedic scenes throughout the story — an exaggerated, silly, drunken, near ActI. In this scene, Shakespeare introduces his use of the double meanings of words and phrases to humorous effect, which he will continue throughout the play. At other times, however, characters consciously use wordplay to their advantage.
Maria plays with words in order to put down Andrew 64— Taking his hand, she tells him to let it drink. A confused Andrew asks what her meaning is. And finally, as she lets go of him, she shifts once more; she is barren, that is, she is dry of humor, having no more jokes to make at his expense. This exchange highlights how Andrew is usually portrayed as a boastful idiot, though he does have moments of incipient self-recognition.
His need to be liked, however, prevents him from being too honest with himself or others. If he were only a little bit smarter, he might be capable of the kind of self-awareness that leads to growth. But his attention, or brainpower, falls just short of critical mass.
Maria stays one step ahead of Sir Andrew with her dry jests. Andrew, however, has lost faith, seeing his courtship with Olivia as a bust. If his appetite for food and drink leads Toby to endure the tedious company of Andrew to maintain his supplies, Andrew is driven by his need to be well liked and respected.
In this play, characters glut themselves on their appetites and are made fools of by their own desires. Toby takes great pleasure in tricking Andrew into playing the idiot — or at least exhibiting his silliness and stupidity. Toby encourages Andrew to brag and then consistently puts his bragging to the test.
Their talk of dance steps is an egregious example of this dynamic. Their exit is often staged with Andrew the selfproclaimed master of the back-trick cutting a ridiculous figure as he attempts to cut a caper and lands on the seat of his pants. Orsino entrusts Viola as his messenger to woo Olivia. Viola, in an aside to the audience, confides that she is in love with Orsino.
He hath known you but three days, and already you are no stranger. Viola You either fear his humour or my negligence, that you call in question the continuance of his love. Is he inconstant, sir, in his favours? Viola I thank you. Here comes the count. Viola On your attendance, my lord; here.
Duke Stand you a while aloof. Foreign as the custom is to us in the twentieth century, wooing by proxy was often practised in Britain and Europe. The danger was that the proxy the messenger would reap personal advantage from the encounter. Duke Be clamorous and leap all civil bounds Rather than make unprofited return. Viola Say I do speak with her, my lord, what then? Duke Oh, then unfold the passion of my love, Surprise her with discourse of my dear faith 20 ActI. Act I, Scene 4 45 25 Viola I think not so, my lord.
Duke Dear lad, believe it; For they shall yet belie thy happy years, That say thou art a man. Some four or five attend him, All, if you will; for I myself am best When least in company. Prosper well in this, And thou shalt live as freely as thy lord, To call his fortunes thine.
This theme comes into play throughout Twelfth Night. In a later scene, Feste mocks Orsino for his inconstancy. Orsino himself says that he is constant in his affection for Olivia and inconstant in everything else. Orsino enters, dismisses his attendants, and takes Cesario aside. He means to send Cesario to Olivia to plead his love for her.
He implores Cesario to do whatever it takes to see Olivia in person: Cesario accepts the task, but wonders why he should be successful after so many failures by others. Orsino tells Cesario to unfold the passions of his love, adding that he will be well rewarded for acting his woes, that is, presenting his love sickness to Olivia in a moving manner.
The idea of performing his woes comes naturally to Orsino; he does perform them himself. His passionate longing and suffering for love has a self dramatizing quality.
Orsino probably has concluded that Olivia would reject him outright, ending his courtship once and for all. For an audience today, CliffsComplete Twelfth Night the difficulty lies in believing that Cesario, played by a woman, can pass for a man.
Much of the comedy in this play depends on the elusiveness of identity gender or otherwise.
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Viola promises to woo Olivia. But having fallen in love with Orsino herself, she has no love of the task. She would pursue him herself, but how can she, disguised as a boy? The love complications have just begun. Feste the jester. Maria Nay, either tell me where thou hast been, or I will not open my lips so wide as a bristle may enter in way of thy excuse. My lady will hang thee for thy absence. Clown Let her hang me; he that is well hanged in this world needs to fear no colours.
Make that good: Clown He shall see none to fear. Maria A good lenten answer. Clown Well, God give them wisdom that have it; and those that are fools, let them use their talents. Maria Yet you will be hanged for being so long absent; or, to be turned away, is not that as good as a hanging to you?
Maria You are resolute, then? Clown Not so, neither; but I am resolved on two points. Maria That if one break, the other will hold; or, if both break, your gaskins fall. Here comes my lady.
Make your excuse wisely, you were best. Those wits, that think they have thee, do very oft prove fools; and I, that am sure I lack thee, may pass for a wise man. For what says Quinapalus? Olivia is in mourning and she has no patience for foolery. Feste, the jester, employs a kind of logical reasoning called the syllogism, consisting of the major and minor premises followed by a conclusion.
His argument is a parody of the syllogistic method. Olivia Take the fool away. Clown Do you not hear, fellows? Take away the lady. Besides, you grow dishonest. Clown Two faults, madonna, that drink and good counsel will amend: If that this simple syllogism will serve, so; if it will not, what remedy?
The lady bade take away the fool; therefore, I say again, take her away. Clown Misprision in the highest degree! Lady, cucullus non facit monachum. Good madonna, give me leave to prove you a fool. Olivia Can you do it? Clown Dexteriously, good madonna. Olivia Make your proof. Clown I must catechize you for it, madonna. Good my mouse of virtue, answer me. Act I, Scene 5 49 60 Clown Good madonna, why mournest thou?
Clown I think his soul is in hell, modonna. Olivia I know his soul is in heaven, fool. Take away the fool, gentlemen. Malvolio Yes, and shall do till the pangs of death shake him.
Infirmity, that decays the wise, doth ever make the better fool. Clown God send you sir, a speedy infirmity, for the better increasing your folly! Sir Toby will be sworn that I am no fox; but he will not pass his word for two pence that you are no fool.
Malvolio thinks the Clown is weak and sick. Malvolio I marvel your ladyship takes delight in such a barren rascal. I saw him put down the other day with an ordinary fool that has no more brain than a stone.
Unless you laugh and minister occasion to him, he is gagged. Olivia O, you are sick of self-love, Malvolio, and taste with a distempered appetite.
To be generous, guiltless, and of free disposition, is to take those things for bird-bolts that you deem cannon-bullets. There is no slander in an allowed fool, though he do nothing but rail; nor no railing in a known discreet man, though he do nothing but reprove. Clown Now Mercury endue thee with leasing, for thou speakest well of fools! Olivia Who of my people hold him in delay? Maria Sir Toby, madam, your kinsman. Olivia Fetch him off, I pray you; he speaks nothing but madman; fie on him!
If it be a suit from the count, I am sick, or not at home — what you will, to dismiss it. Clown Thou hast spoke for us, madonna, as if thy eldest son should be a fool, whose skull Jove cram with brains! What is he at the gate, cousin? Sir Toby A gentleman. Olivia A gentleman! How now, sot! Clown Good Sir Toby! Olivia Cousin, cousin, how have you come so early by this lethargy?
Sir Toby Lechery? I defy lechery. Olivia Ay, marry, what is he? Sir Toby Let him be the devil, an he will, I care not. Give me faith, say I. Go, look after him. Act I, Scene 5 51 I told him you were sick; he takes on him to understand so much, and therefore comes to speak with you. I told him you were asleep; he seems to have a foreknowledge of that too, and therefore comes to speak with you. What is to be said to him, lady?
Malvolio Why, of mankind. Olivia Of what personage and years is he? Olivia Let him approach. Call in my gentlewoman. Malvolio Gentlewoman, my lady calls. Your will? Viola Most radiant, exquisite and unmatchable beauty, — I pray you, tell me if this be the lady of the house, for I never saw her. I would be loath to cast away my speech, for besides that it is excellently well penned, I have taken great pains to con it. Good beauties, let me sustain no scorn; I am very comptible, even to the least sinister usage.
Olivia Whence came you sir? Good gentle one, give me modest assurance if you be the lady of the house, that I may proceed in my speech. Viola No my profound heart; and yet by the very fangs of malice I swear, I am not that I play. Are you the lady of the house? Viola Most certain, if you are she, you do usurp yourself; for what is yours to bestow is not yours to reserve.
But this is from my commission. I will on with my speech in your praise, and then show you the heart of my message. Olivia It is the more like to be feigned; I pray you, keep it in. I heard you were saucy at my gates, and allowed your approach rather to wonder at you usurp: If you be not mad, be gone; if you have reason, be brief.
Act I, Scene 5 Maria Will you hoist sail, sir? Viola No, good swabber; I am to hull here a little longer. Some mollification for your giant, sweet lady. Tell me your mind, I am a messenger.
Maria was small. What do you want? What are you? What would you? Viola The rudeness that hath appeared in me have I learned from my entertainment. Speak your office.
Viola It alone concerns your car. I bring no overture of war, no taxation of homage. I hold the olive in my hand; my words are as full of peace as matter. Viola Most sweet lady, — Olivia A comfortable doctrine, and much may be said of it. Where lies your text? Olivia In his bosom! In what chapter of his bosom? Viola To answer by the method, in the first of his heart. Olivia Oh, I have read it; it is heresy. Have you no more to say?
Olivia Have you any commission from your lord to negotiate with my face? You are now out of your text; but we will draw the curtain and show you the ActI. Look you, sir, such a one I was this present. Olivia Oh, sir, I will not be so hard-hearted; I will give out divers schedules of my beauty.
It shall be inventoried, and every particle and utensil labelled to my will: Were you sent hither to praise me? Viola I see you what you are, you are too proud; But, if you were the devil, you are fair. My lord and master loves you.
Olivia Olivia Why, what would you? Act I, Scene 5 55 The impression of hallooing, reverberating, and babbling gossip is very brilliantly and masterfully created in this passage by the use of vowel sounds, assonance, and alliterative onomatopoeia.
What is your parentage? Viola Above my fortunes, yet my state is well; I am a gentleman. Let him send no more; Unless, perchance, you come to me again, To tell me how he takes it.
Fare you well. I thank you for your pains; spend this for me. My master, not myself, lacks recompense. Farewell, fair cruelty. Thy tongue, thy face, thy limbs, actions, and spirit, Do give thee five-fold blazon. Not too fast: Unless the master were the man. How now! Even so quickly may one catch the plague? Well, let it be. What ho, Malvolio! He left this ring behind him, Would I or not.
Desire him not to flatter with his lord, Nor hold him tip with hopes; I am not for him. Hie thee, Malvolio. Olivia keeps up this pretense to avoid letting Malvolio suspect that she, the countess, has fallen in love with Cesario.
Hie thee: What is decreed must be, and be this so. Their rapid-fire one-liners attest to their familiarity with one another. Although the text refers to Feste as a clown, portraying him in a traditional clown costume is not necessary.
This selfacceptance leaves him free to poke fun at the desires of others, as when he teases Maria about wanting to marry Sir Toby 25— We sense Feste may be weary of his role in the house. Maria exits, and Olivia appears, looking very grave, dressed in black and wearing a mourning veil. Her steward Malvolio, also in black, is a stiff, no-nonsense person. Feste puts his hands together in a mock prayer to Wit the fool invokes the spirit of good humor, or Wit, as if it were a god , to make him funny.
She replies that he is a dry fool and dishonest. Feste asks Olivia for permission to prove she is a fool. She grants it, and he poses her questions that prove she is foolish to cry for her dead brother as his soul is in heaven, a better place than earth. This thought pleases ActI. This is exactly the purpose of a fool, to give people perspective on their folly via humor. The nature of comedy depends upon both the wit of the comedian and the receptivity of the audience. Olivia asks whether the fool mends, that is, gives pleasure.
Malvolio shows nothing but scorn for Feste and denies any positive effects that fooling might provide. Malvolio is the perfect companion for Olivia while she mourns; he is serious and somber.
Like the Puritans who condemned the theater in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth century in England, Malvolio undervalues the role of feelings in life and over-emphasizes social utility and reason.
Malvolio scorns people who laugh at fools and encourage their jests, as if it were time and labor wasted, rather than a mutually beneficial merriment. Olivia tells Malvolio that he is sick of self-love and cannot appreciate a good joke. It takes one to know one; and Olivia is not so different from her steward, at least with regard to being sick of self-love overly self-absorbed and self-important.
Yet, her ability to diagnose Malvolio may signify that she herself has the potential for self-knowledge — the only cure for this particular disease. The sickness of self-love hits epidemic proportions in this play; Malvolio is just the only sufferer who does not belong to the nobility. His self-love, combined with his instinct for social climbing, makes it more obtrusive and repugnant to the sensibilities of the other characters. Olivia rightly assumes that the guest must be a messenger from Orsino and tells Malvolio to send him away.
Sir Toby has been delaying him in the interim. Sir Toby staggers onto stage, excessively drunk and belching, blaming his intoxication and belching on the pickled herring he has been eating. Toby reports that Cesario — the visitor — is a gentleman and staggers off. Olivia plays another round of question and answer with her fool.
Feste is a thoughtful fool, whereas Toby is a clownish gentleman. He reports that the visitor will stand at her door like a court officer that must deliver his subpoena or summons personally. Notice that he does not define Viola by what she is, but what she is not; she is not yet a man, but not young enough for a boy.
The veil serves a double purpose here. First, the veil signifies that Olivia is in mourning, and as such, it is not an appropriate time to court her.
Second, the veil allows Olivia to shroud her identity in mystery. Cesario enters and launches into his prepared speech, but unsure of whom to address, he breaks off his speech and asks which one is the lady of the house. Olivia says she will answer for the lady of the house.
First, we have Viola, the woman. Second, we have Cesario, the young man she counterfeits. And finally, we have the role of an actor speaking for Orsino by proxy with a prepared speech.
The word is used both as the heart, or central core, of the message, and as a love message, revealing the heart of Orsino. She is interested in the messenger, not the message. She removes her veil as though revealing a work of art. She wants has come to expect from men — no wonder, as Cesario the messenger to get to the matter and skip the praise is not a man.
Cesario mockingly wonders whether her part, which is likely to be false. Just the thought of lisbeauty is painted on with makeup. Cesario tells her it would be a shame to leave the table and impatient. She wonders why she has even let world no copy of such beauty, that is, without bearing a this rude messenger take up this much of her time. Olivia maintains her sarcastic tone, saying she speak.In some cases, the plays have come down to us in multiple published versions, represented by various Quartos Qq and by the great collection put together by his colleagues in , called the First Folio F.
His counsel now might do me golden service; For though my soul disputes well with my sense, That this may be some error, but no madness, Yet doth this accident and flood of fortune So far exceed all instance, all discourse, That I am ready to distrust mine eyes And wrangle with my reason that persuades me To any other trust but that I am mad Or else the lady's mad; yet, if 'twere so, She could not sway her house, command her followers, Take and give back affairs and their dispatch With such a smooth, discreet and stable bearing As I perceive she does: In Illyria, characters like actors take on fictive roles, and the line between being someone and playing someone is as tenuous as the line between reality and illusion.
Toby encourages Andrew to brag and then consistently puts his bragging to the test. Clown Let her hang me; he that is well hanged in this world needs to fear no colours.
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